# Scientific articles

Since the book is a presentation of important physical relationships, condensed and backed up by understandable mathematics, further articles and publications need to explain certain newly explored and discovered natural phenomena.

## The impedance of free space

**By Dr. Andreas Gimsa**

### Abstract

To examine whether magnetic monopoles exist, where they are to be found, and whether they are an essential feature of nature.

The electrical conductivity of matter is caused by electrons as elementary electric charges. Each electron (as an element of matter) is the source of an electrostatic field. If it can be shown that a substance has magnetic conductivity, then it also comes into question as a source of a magnetic field. If any open magnetic field lines existed in it, the field of the magnetic flux density would no longer be free of sources. The matter would then also have to contain magnetic elementary charge carriers (monopoles). The production of magnetic monopoles has not yet succeeded.

Ray et al. demonstrate the controlled creation of Dirac monopoles in the synthetic magnetic field produced by a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate ¹. However, it must be said, they did not really demonstrate the controlled creation of true Dirac monopoles, but rather have simulated such monopoles with ultracold atoms.

The assumed magnetic elementary charge is subjected to a dimensional analysis. The carrier of the magnetic elementary charges is postulated on the basis of the calculation formulas for Planck's constant and the Klitzing resistance. The accuracy of the formulas is checked, based on various calculation rules for the Klitzing resistance. To illustrate the symmetrical structure of the natural phenomena under investigation, the calculations are normalized in new elementary units.

Finally, a spatiotemporal reference is made to reduce the carrier material postulate of the magnetic elementary charges, and an experimental set-up is proposed for the investigation.

¹ Ray, Ruokokoski, Kandel, Möttönen & Hall, Nature 505, P. 657-660, 30 January 2014

Brochure (German) available at: buchhandel.de

## Gravitational time dilation in comparison

**By Dr. Andreas Gimsa**

### Summary

Based on the historical Pound-Rebka experiment (measurement of time dilation at Harvard University’s Jefferson Tower) two calculation methods are compared with each other:

- Calculation of time dilation on the basis of Einstein's field equations and
- Calculation of time dilation based on the formula derived in the book [03-16].

The result from the formulas in the book is much closer to the experimentally determined results.

## Gravitation - part of the "Beauty of Nature"

## - Derived from quantum physics -

**By Dr. Andreas Gimsa**

### Summary

The aim of this contribution is to investigate the cause of gravitation. Although it is nowadays certainly the view among scientists that the cause of gravitation has been explained and it would seem to exist in the space-time curvature¹, there are also a number of critical voices who regard this as a cause rather than an effect, one which can be detected by measurement through the influence of time and the deflection of light at objects with mass.

The description of the space-time curvature in itself is also difficult and controversial, since in the case of space, we are not dealing with a material surface that allows itself to be curved endlessly. If we want to describe changes in space, then changes in density or concentration would be suitable space-forming substances, for example. However, such considerations can be ruled out up to now, because -according to Einstein- the so-called substantial aether does not exist. Despite this, the insubstantial space itself would be capable of bending. Yet what actually does curve if nothing is present?

According to Maxwell, accelerated charges must radiate.² The charge of gravitation is mass; objects with mass are accelerated by gravity. Therefore, these masses must radiate. What type of radiation is this, which particles radiate there?

It is therefore a question of the interaction particles and hence also of the cause of gravitation. Here, the author intends to demonstrate that the interaction particles are time quanta.

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¹ Ulrich Schröder, Gravitation, Einführung in die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie, P. 27, Wissen- schaftlicher Verlag Harri Deutsch GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, 2002, ISBN 3-8171-1679-9

² Dieter Meschede, Gerthsen Physik, P. 432, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2002, 21st edition, ISBN 3-540-42024-X

Brochure (German) available at: buchhandel.de

## The variable gravitational value

**By Dr. Andreas Gimsa**

### Summary

The isentropic expansion of space entails a reduction in mass over time. This reduction, in turn, can only be consistently represented if the so-called gravitational constant γ changes with time.¹ It must become larger.

Dirac had already reflected on the variability of γ. Accordingly, the gravitational constant ought to decrease with the age of the universe. This caused quite a lot of excitement among colleagues, as well as leading to loud protests and heated debates.²

The special theory of relativity uses the so-called Lorentz factors for the speed-dependent changes in mass, time, and length. Here, the aim is to explain why the gravitational constant γ must also be associated with a Lorentz factor, and must therefore be variable. In addition, the increase in γ during the isentropic expansion of space is derived and presented.

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¹ Andreas Gimsa, The Beauty of Nature, p.70 ff., Gieselmann Druck- und Medienhaus, Potsdam 2014, ISBN 978-3-923830-97-8

² John D. Barrow, The Constants of Nature, Vintage Books (London) 2003, ISBN 978-0-099286-47-9

Brochure (German) available at: buchhandel.de

## Magnetic monopoles - gravitation - time

## - Derived from the Maxwell equations -

**By Dr. Andreas Gimsa**

### Summary

Those magnetic monopoles that are created during mass decay are identified as interaction particles of gravitation on the basis of the Maxwell equations. The form of these equations, still valid and proven up to now, is supplemented by the addition of two key terms that relate to the magnetic monopoles and time.

On the basis of the physical relationships, it is explained why magnetic monopoles are fundamental and so indispensable for understanding the world. Magnetic monopoles, the origin of space and time from the masses, and even the movement of electrons within atoms can be explained on the basis of the complete Maxwell equations.

If we theoretically examine the deflection of a charged particle in the vicinity of a monopole, we find that such an arrangement violates the time-reversal invariance. This means that the process does not occur in the same way when the time direction is reversed. For a long time, this fact directly contradicted the existence of magnetic monopoles. However, since the CP violation could be detected in the decay of K mesons in 1964, it follows directly from the CPT theory that invariance-infringing processes exist.¹ The violation of time-reversal invariance does suggest that the origin of time and magnetic monopoles are closely related.

The interplay of masses, gravitation and time would also have to be reflected in the long-suspected pulsation of space. The spherical surface of space would then undergo a periodic change over time. A wave equation has been developed for this purpose.

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¹ Wikipedia, German edition, search term “Magnetische Monopole” (Magnetic Monopoles), “Verletzung der Zeitumkehrinvarianz“ (violation of time-reversal invariance), called up on 8 June 2016

Brochure (German) available at: buchhandel.de

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